Looting The Aristocracy

This note was originally published at 8am on July 01, 2013 for Hedgeye subscribers.

“All looting would wait until after complete victory.”

-Jack Weatherford


Of all the successful wartime innovations of Genghis Kahn versus oppressive 13th century kingdoms, his looting policy was one of the most unique.


“He ordered that a soldier’s share be allocated to each widow and to each orphan of every soldier killed” … “this policy ensured him of the support of the poorest people in the tribe, but it also inspired loyalty among his soldiers.”


“By controlling the distribution of all the looted goods, he had again violated the traditional rights of the aristocratic lineages...” (Genghis Kahn and The Making of the Modern World, pages 50-51).  The trust of The People was his currency.


Back to the Global Macro Grind


You can study the last 80 years of economic history or the last 800 and you will come to the same basic conclusion: Politicians eventually plunder The People, until The People push back. The pattern of behavior is not that complicated really. Think it through.


On and off for the last 40 years or so, the United States of America has engaged in the same economic plundering that European Aristocratic regimes tried inasmuch as the Ming Dynasty of 14th century China did. It works, until it doesn’t.


Economic plundering occurs when people who get paid by their political ascent devalue the purchasing power of their people. Nixon started it in 1971 and Carter continued it; Reagan and Clinton got rid of it; then Bush II and Obama resuscitated it. The only sustainably strong periods of US economic growth (1983-89 and 1993-99) in the last 40 years occurred when the Dollar wasn’t being devalued.


But you already know that…


As a result, you also know why both real (inflation adjusted) US GDP growth and the US Consumption side of the US stock market has performed so well in the last 6 months. #StrongDollar = #CommodityDeflation.


To review the last 6 months:

  1. US Dollar Index = +4.3% YTD
  2. CRB Commodities Index = -6.6% YTD
  3. US Consumer Discretionary Stocks (XLY) = +18.9% YTD

No, this is not new – but last week was a friendly reminder to those who live in fear of #StrongDollar Commodity and Debt Deflation that there is indeed another side to this globally interconnected trade.


Last week’s absolute and relative performance of the same was pronounced:

  1. US Dollar Index = +1.1% wk-over-wk to $83.19
  2. CRB Commodities Index = -0.9% wk-over-wk to 275
  3. US Consumer Discretionary (XLY) = +2.5% wk-over-wk to $56.40

And, of course, after the worst month for US stocks in 2013 (SP500 -1.5% for the month of June), Consumer Discretionary (XLY) was the only S&P Sector to close up (+0.5%) for the month.


Can we handle a 3-6% stock market correction? Can we handle #RisingRates? Can we handle the truth?


Since most Commodities trade via the world’s reserve currency, pervasively bullish moves in that currency (US Dollar) can perpetuate a global consumption #TaxCut.


Guys who are marketing 2 and 20 on levered long Gold Funds and/or Super Sovereign Credit Bubble funds (whose base premise is that savers should earn 0% rates of return in perpetuity, and like it) don’t like this at all.


But I do. I think The People do too.


And why, by the way, should it be any other way? Why should we support aristocrat bond fund managers like Bill Gross begging for Bernanke to superimpose more slow-growth policies on the US Economy?


But don’t worry, Paul Krugman agrees with Gross now – so we’ll have to deal with Bernanke being pressured by both “intellectual” and asset management aristocrats for the next 3 months as we try to handicap their tapering whispers.


Where to from here? I don’t know. I think I know what the two potential paths look like though:

  1. Fed tapers; the US Dollar continues to strengthen, and we buy back our US Consumption #GrowthAccelerating position
  2. Fed doesn’t taper; the US Dollar is devalued (again), Food, Gold, and Oil prices rip, and we’re back to US #GrowthSlowing (again)

Americans have a choice. But the scarier reality is that so do their politicians. So stand up and be heard, before it’s too late.


Our immediate-term Risk Ranges are now:


UST 10yr 2.47-2.74%

SPX 1558-1618

DAX 7613-8078

VIX 15.26-20.97

USD 82.46-84.04

Gold 1171-1278


Best of luck out there this week. And Happy Canada Day!



Keith R. McCullough
Chief Executive Officer


Looting The Aristocracy - DXY vs CRB   XLY


Looting The Aristocracy - vp71

Gravity's Wisdom

“Wisdom is not wisdom when it is derived from books alone.”



Horace was the prominent Roman poet during Augustus’ reign. He died at the age of 56, in 8 BC. Despite his fear that his “books would eventually become food for vandal moths” (The Swerve, page 84), his wisdoms didn’t die alongside him.


History teaches those of us who care to study it more than we’ll ever be able to know. The more I read, the more I realize that I know very little. History also gives me a tremendous appreciation for both empathy and context.


If you can’t empathize with another person’s perspective, how can you criticize it? If you can’t contextualize today within yesterday, how can you handicap where we may be going next?


Back to the Global Macro Grind


Given that I have a degree in Keynesian economics, I feel relatively comfortable disagreeing with many of its assumptions. Admittedly, doing it with my own money instead of theorizing from a textbook helped expedite my learning process.


“Don’t think, just do” is something else that Horace wrote. But just doing isn’t enough. You have to be held accountable to what you are doing. Learning from your mistakes is an invaluable lesson. Doing it with other people’s money is called responsibility.


I suggest both the Fed and the President of the Unites States consider that when affecting either the value of our currency and/or the risk-free rate of return on our hard earned savings. On both major factors, there is responsibility in their policy recommendation.


How does this tie back to the US economy?

  1. Monetary and Fiscal Policy is causal to A) the value of a currency and B) the risk-free rate of return on that money
  2. Since WWII, there has never been a sustained US economic growth period without #StrongDollar and #Rising Rates

So why fight history? That’s what Bernanke is currently trying to do. If you are a Bernanke fan, at a bare minimum, you have to acknowledge that he is trying to “smooth” the pace of US Dollar gains and #RatesRising at this point. Why should we let him?


In the very immediate-term, we know what an acceleration in #StrongDollar and #RisingRates does:

  1. It smokes Gold and related #CommodityBubbles
  2. It beats down on Treasuries and related Bonds
  3. It eats into slow growth #YieldChasing investments (MLPs, Utilities, Junk Bonds, etc.)

And that’s all bad for who? Bingo – those who are long 1, 2, and 3. Meanwhile, who gets paid?

  1. Consumers - #CommodityDeflation = Tax Cut
  2. Savers – risk free rates of return on Savings accounts go up, finally
  3. Growth Investors – oh yes folks, this one is stealth

The first two compensation pools of people are obvious. Those populations, by the way, are much larger than the partnership group at PIMCO that gets paid in size if Bonds outperform growth stocks in perpetuity.


The third constituency is for crazy people like me. You know, people who don’t wake up every morning trying to scare the hell out of you, burn your currency, and hand your tax-dollars over to bankers who pay themselves. We are Growth Investors.


Whether I’m investing in a low-dividend yielding big cap growth stock like Starbucks (SBUX) or private growth company like Hedgeye, it’s all the same bet. We aren’t betting on the end of the world. We are betting on brands and people. We are betting they grow.


Put another way, here’s how the market has been scoring this for the last month:

  1. Consumer Discretionary (XLY) stocks +5.1% versus Basic Materials (XLB) stocks -0.8%
  2. Low Yield stocks (i.e. growth stocks) are +5.1% in the last month and +26.3% YTD
  3. Top 25% EPS growth stocks (SP500) are +4.9% in the last month and +23.7% YTD

Bernanke, you got a problem with that?


I didn’t read this in your Keynesian Econ 101 book, bro. It’s on the tape. This is not only consistent with the 1 (Reagan) and 1 (Clinton) bi-partisan periods of US growth investing (where US GDP averaged over +4% during each period), it’s been a consistent market message for the last 180 days. Read and respect its message.


For the last 6 months, here are the #StrongDollar correlations to major market moves:

  1. SP500 = +0.75
  2. Commodities (CRB Index) = -0.78
  3. Gold = -0.74

No, no, no. The Mucker is not considered a wise man in Washington. Nor does he want to be. But please, my friends, please - don’t let an un-elected body of perceived wisdom at the US Federal Reserve mess this one up again. The gravity of Mr. Market’s wisdoms have spoken. They are the most pro-growth signals we have seen in years. Only your government can mess this one up this time.


I’ll be hosting our Q312 Global Macro Themes call at 11AM EST this morning. Ping if you’d like access.


Our immediate-term Risk Ranges are now:


UST 10yr 2.44-2.77%


VIX 13.01-15.04

USD 82.45-83.88

Oil 106.48-110.29

Gold 1


Best of luck out there today,



Keith R. McCullough
Chief Executive Officer


Gravity's Wisdom - Chartoftheday

Gravity's Wisdom - vp 7 15

Attention Students...

Get The Macro Show and the Early Look now for only $29.95/month – a savings of 57% – with the Hedgeye Student Discount! In addition to those daily macro insights, you'll receive exclusive content tailor-made to augment what you learn in the classroom. Must be a current college or university student to qualify.


TODAY’S S&P 500 SET-UP – July 15, 2013

As we look at today's setup for the S&P 500, the range is 48 points or 2.27% downside to 1642 and 0.58% upside to 1690.     










  • YIELD CURVE: 2.25 from 2.24
  • VIX closed at 13.84 1 day percent change of -1.21%

MACRO DATA POINTS (Bloomberg Estimates):

  • 8am: Fed’s Tarullo speaks on banking regulation in D.C.
  • 8:30am: Empire Manufacturing, July, est. 5 (prior 7.84)
  • 8:30am: Advance Retail Sales, June, est. 0.7% (prior 0.6%)
  • 10am: Business Inventories, May, est. 0.2% (prior 0.3%)
  • 11am: Fed to purchase $750m-$1b in 2023-2031 sector
  • 11:30am: U.S. to sell $30b 3M bills, $25b 6M bills
  • U.S. Weekly Rates Agenda


    • Fed Governor Tarullo speaks on Dodd-Frank law’s implementation, Basel III rules and possible further measures to bolster requirements for largest U.S. banks, 8am
    • House will likely vote this week on bill that would let states implement minimum federal standards for disposing coal ash generated by power plants, giving EPA a secondary regulatory role
    • Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Cmte holds hearing on “Strategic Sourcing: Leveraging the Government’s Buying Power to Save Billions,” 3pm
    • FHFA deadline for comments on proposed rule on Golden Parachute and Indemnification payments
    • President George W. Bush, with his wife Laura Bush, returns to White House for Point of Light award
    • Under Secretary for Intl Affairs Lael Brainard will preview meeting of G20 finance ministers, central bank governors in Russia and discuss the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue, 4pm


  • AT&T’s $1.2b Leap deal puts pressure on smaller rivals to pair up
  • MB Financial agrees to acquire Taylor Capital for $22/share
  • Boeing 787 fire in London unrelated to battery, U.K. says
  • China’s economy slowed to up 7.5% in 2Q, matching ests.
  • China almost doubles foreign funds’ access to capital markets
  • Vivus invites First Manhattan to have 3 nominees join board
  • Citigroup, BofA, others report charge-offs, delinquencies
  • Microsoft cuts Surface tablet prices by as much as 30%
  • GE weighs Invensys bid after Schneider offer, Times reports
  • “Despicable Me 2” edges out Sandler comedy in weekend
  • Goldman’s Fabrice Tourre set to face SEC fraud trial today
  • Health-care spending in U.S. seen as starting to flatten: WSJ
  • U.S. Weekly Agendas: Finance, Industrials, Energy, Health, Consumer, Tech, Media/Ent, Real Estate, Transports
  • North American M&A Agenda
  • Canada Weekly Agendas: Energy, Mining
  • Retail sales probably climbed: U.S. Economy Weekly Preview
  • Bernanke, G-20, Dell, China GDP, Google: Wk Ahead July 13-20


    • Citigroup (C) 8am, $1.18 - Preview
    • JB Hunt Transport (JBHT) 4pm, $0.74
    • Brown & Brown (BRO) 4:15pm, $0.35
    • Healthcare Services (HCSG) 4:15pm, $0.19
    • Cintas (CTAS) 4:15pm, $0.70       


  • WTI Crude Falls After Third Weekly Gain as Chinese Growth Slows
  • Hedge Funds Bought Gold in Biggest Rally Since 2011: Commodities
  • Refined Palm Imports by India Seen at Record High on Lower Taxes
  • Gold Is Little Changed After Best Week Since 2011 on Stimulus
  • Copper Falls as Weakening Chinese Economy Fuels Demand Concern
  • Corn Extends July’s Biggest Slump on Improving Outlook in U.S.
  • Cocoa Rebounds After European Processing Data; Coffee Retreats
  • China June Crude Steel Output Falls to Four-Month Low on Prices
  • Shale Skeptics Take On Pickens as Gas Fuels Policies: Energy
  • Zinc 15% Capacity Loss Has Miners Struggling to Fill Supply Gap
  • Crude Bets Jump to Two-Year High as Demand Soars: Energy Markets
  • Citigroup Says Not Yet Time for ‘Bottom-Fishing’ in Commodities
  • Milk Price War Pits California Dairy Farms Against Cheesemakers
  • Palm Oil Drops to Two-Month Low as Chinese Demand Seen Falling


























The Hedgeye Macro Team

















Casino operators have been adding more non-gaming facilities to their casino and resort projects in Cotai to lure more different customers.  According to some financial reports, SJM’s EBITDA of one gaming table in its bigger size casino can reach US$5,000, as compared to the US$1,729 at its other casinos.  The overall performance of SJM was dragged down by small or third-party operated casinos. SJM CEO Ambrose So said although Grand Lisboa has a higher operating efficiency, there is little room to add more gaming tables. The situation will improve when the casino operator's project in Cotai is operational.



Bets on horse races in Hong Kong are poised to exceed wagers at Nevada's casinos for a second straight year.  Wagers of HK$93.8 billion ($12 billion) from 83 horse-race meetings in the fiscal year to June 30 were 19% more than Nevada’s combined take in the 11 months through May.  Bets at the club, set up in 1884 when Hong Kong was under British rule, exceeded those in the U.S. gambling hub in fiscal 2012 for the first time in about a decade.


The Jockey Club is seeking to raise sales further by keeping more Hong Kong residents from taking the one-hour ferry ride to Macau and through revenue-sharing agreements, CEO Winfried Engelbrecht-Bresges said.  The goal is to lure back about a third of the HK$26 billion Hong Kong residents bet in Macau the past year, he said.



Chinese financial institutions issued 860.5 billion yuan ($140 billion) of new yuan loans in June, up from CNY667.4 billion in May.  This was above economists' expectations, which had forecast June's newly issued yuan loans at CNY800 billion.


Total social financing, a broader measurement of credit in the economy, came to CNY1.04 trillion in June, down from CNY1.19 trillion in May. Total social financing in June was the lowest monthly tally this year.  China's broadest measure of money supply, M2, was up 14.0% at the end of June compared with a year earlier, lower than the 15.8% rise at the end of May.  The figure was below the median 15.2% increase forecast by 20 economists polled by Dow Jones.



Macau visitor arrivals in package tours increased by 7.7% YoY to 721,104 in May 2013.  Visitors arrivals in package tours mainly came from Mainland China (547,803), with 174,678 coming from Guangdong Province, followed by those from China (43,926); Hong Kong (30,048) and the Republic of Korea (25,011).


There were 99 hotels and guesthouses operating at the end of May 2013, providing 28,065 rooms, up by 16.4% YoY; guest rooms of 5-star hotels accounted for 66.5% of the total. The average length of stay of guests decreased by 0.1 night YoY to 1.3 nights. 



Philippine investigators found evidence that Japanese billionaire Kazuo Okada used companies that aren’t qualified to develop a casino in Manila.  A fact-finding panel recommended criminal charges against Okada and other parties for possible violations of a law against using front companies to own land. Separately, the panel didn’t find sufficient evidence to recommend charges on bribery, it said.  Claro Arellano, prosecutor general, said there will be a further investigation.


“We built the current land-owning scheme based on advice from the Philippines’ prominent lawyers, so our understanding is that it’s legal,” Nobuyuki Horiuchi, a spokesman for Universal Entertainment.


Takeaway: Current Investing Ideas: FDX, HCA, HOLX, MPEL, MD, NSM, SBUX, WWW

Investing Ideas Updates:

FDX: Industrials sector head Jay Van Sciver features FedEx in a Hedgeye Flash Call with investors.  See this week’s Sector Spotlight (below) for a full write-up.

HCA: When Tenet (THC) announced that they were buying Vanguard Health Systems, they let slip that inpatient volumes continued to be soft in the second quarter after a weak first quarter.  They also said their outpatient business was doing well, however, and despite the slowdown in inpatient volume, their results would trend toward the low end of their guidance. 


The market overlap between HCA Corp and THC is high, roughly 70%, and trends at the two hospital operators mirroreach other closely.  We suspect the recent THC news raised concerns that HCA will have a less than stellar result. 


The other development this week has been news that the Obama Administration is delaying the employer mandate.  While not a meaningful source of newly-insured consumers under Obamacare, it is a meaningful commentary on readiness.  The implication is that other key parts of the law will be delayed as well, including the Exchanges. 


Obamacare delays are negative for HCA and its peers and while none of the provision changes have caused changes in our outlook, we are keeping a close eye on developments in DC.


HOLX: We recently launched a survey of OB/GYNs we plan to take every month asking physicians about a number of key items that apply to Hologic as well as several other Subgroups including Hospitals and Managed Care.  We’ll be asking about patient traffic, deliveries, pregnancy trends and key to the HOLX thesis, about changes in their use of the Pap smear. 


Hologic’s Pap test, ThinPrep®, has been under pressure due to changes in the Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines updated last year encouraging less frequent testing.   We estimate ThinPrep® is 18% of HOLX’s current revenues, so while less frequent testing is a headwind, the exposure appears manageable to us. 


Our survey will help us quantify how quickly the new guidelines are being adopted ahead of HOLX’s current quarterly result so stay tuned.


MD: Healthcare sector head Tom Tobin has no update on Mednax this week.

MPEL: Gaming, lodging and leisure sector head Todd Jordan has no update on Melco Crown this week.

NSM: The recent strength in Nationstar can be attributed to Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke’s comments this past Wednesday night that he isn’t in any hurry to begin tapering the Fed’s asset purchase program. This is good news for would-be mortgage refinancers, as tapering talk has pushed the long end of the yield curve (long-term interest rates) steadily higher since the beginning of May.


A substantial portion of Nationstar’s earnings come from mortgage origination, most of which is refinancing-driven.Traditionally, rising rates spell disaster for refinancing volume, so it’s not surprising to see Nationstar shares weak inthe short-term. The reasons we’re not overly concerned fundamentally are twofold.


First, most of Nationstar’s refinancing business isn’t traditional refinancing at all, it’s HARP refinancing. HARP refinancing entails borrowers who are underwater on their mortgages and cannot refinance through conventional means because their LTV, or loan-to-value, ratios are too high to meet traditional underwriting criteria.


The thing about HARP refi volume is that it is far less rate-sensitive than traditional refi volume. That’s because a) these borrowers have no other options and b) many of these borrowers are at rates well above market rates anyway, so even a sizeable back-up in rates has only a small effect on the savings they can achieve by refinancing through HARP. Also, it’s important to realize that HARP activity has been quite low in the servicing portfolios that Nationstar has acquired, namely the Bank of America book.


Second, there is a benefit to mortgage servicers from rising rates. Mortgage accounting can be a bit confusing, but here’s a simple way of thinking about it. Mortgage servicing rights, or the MSR, are recorded as an asset on the balance sheet. The MSR is the present value of the future stream of income from servicing the portfolio of mortgages under contract.


There are several things that can cause the value of this asset to fluctuate, one of which is interest rates. Rising ratesmake the asset more valuable because they reduce refinancing volume, which is the same as extending the life of the asset. Mortgage companies recognize changes in the value of the MSR asset as income or loss each quarter. As such, this rise in rates late in the quarter is likely to trigger a sizeable MSR write-up (i.e. more income) for Nationstar.


TRADE: In the short-term the market will trade NSM inversely to long-term interest rates.


TREND: Over the intermediate term, we expect 2Q earnings to be beat Street expectations when the company reports in mid-August , which should be a positive catalyst for the stock to move higher.


TAIL: In the long-term, there is still a tremendous opportunity for non-bank servicers like Nationstar to roll-up the servicing business. NSM is well positioned to be a prime beneficiary. We continue to think consensus earnings estimates remain too low for 2013/2014.


SBUX: Restaurants sector head Howard Penney has no update on Starbucks this week.

WWW: Retail sector head Brian McGough says “Wolverine World Wide’s 2Q print was spot-on with what we needed to remain confident in our call that this is a $100 stock over 2 years.”  McGough was both amused and dismayed by Wall Street’s lack of vision, noting that many participants in the company’s earnings call this week were upset that WWW management refuses to be pulled into the game of making quarterly revenue and earnings estimates.  Management did reaffirm their projected range of revenues for the full year, and upped their projected earnings guidance.  But how is a Sell Side analyst (see this week’s Investing Term) to make a living when the companies he follows won’t cooperate? 


Despite a significant drop in their Performance shoe division, McGough says the thesis on WWW remains strong: WWW will ramp up global revenues as it scales recently acquired brands over its existing global infrastructure.  Taking successful shoe lines that are sold domestically, and opening them up to the world market should take this stock to a double for patient investors.



Macro Theme of the Week: C’mon In! The Water’s Fine


This shark – swallow you whole.

- Quint, “Jaws”

Bernanke to beach party revelers: it’s OK to go back into the water, kids!


There are metaphors aplenty to accompany this week’s celebratory scene as Helicopter Ben takes to the skies yet again.  Hedgeye senior Financials sector analyst Jonathan Casteleyn says Fed Chairman Bernanke threw the markets for a loop in his Congressional testimony in May that “implied that the quantitative easing program that has been in place since 2008 could slowly be reigned in and that the Fed was becoming more data dependent.”  The markets reacted to the emergence of a more fiscally prudent Fed the same as any spoiled child reacts when a parent says “No” – by throwing a tantrum.


If you have every witnessed an embarrassed parent watching their child writhing on the floor in the toy aisle, finally clutching the most expensive item just to quiet their screaming tot, then you have a pretty good idea of what must be going on down at the Federal Reserve these days.


The week started with dire predictions.  “Treasury Yields Will Hit 4%” wrote Goldman Sachs.  On Wednesday markets awoke to the release of last month’s Fed meeting minutes, revealing that the FOMC was about to slam on the brakes and bring the QE program to a screeching halt, ratcheting up interest rates several percentage points in a single move and crushing the global equity markets.


Well no, that’s not actually what the minutes revealed.


“Several FOMC participants backed the move to begin tapering soon” reports Forbes.  So, for the record: “several” is not unanimity – nor even necessarily a majority – and “backing a move to begin tapering” means they will not object if, instead of buying $85 billion worth of bonds next month, Mr. Bernanke were to buy, say, $80 billion worth. 


By Wednesday afternoon, the snot-smeared child that is our market was shrieking, kicking and battering its forehead against the floor and Daddy had to rush in muttering “Shush, shush… there, there, no one’s going to take away your nice toys.”  The thought of going down in history as The Man Who Allowed The Stock Market To Correct While Driving 30-Year Mortgage Rates Over 4% was apparently enough to turn Bernanke from a Dovish Moderate, to a Moderate Dove(extra credit for readers who can parse the difference).


Bernanke played out his Road to Damascus moment at a National Bureau of Economic Research conference, reassuring anyone within earshot “you can only conclude that highly accommodative monetary policy for the foreseeable future is what’s needed.”  The Fed is contemplating winding down its monthly purchases, but Bernanke promises to restore with the Left Hand what he taketh away with the Right.


For a moment it looked like markets were going to have to seek their own levels and trade purely on fundamentals.  But not to worry.  Americans have never known what it feels like to trade in markets free of government manipulation, and we aren’t going to find out any time soon. 


We often hear government economists and policy makers express concern that market turmoil might “spill over and affect the real economy,” an Orwellian locution where the price of oil spiking over $110 is seen as a “market dislocation,” and not as a multi-billion dollar tax on America’s middle class.


There have been measurable benefits from government programs going back to the first responses to the crisis under Treasury Secretary Paulson, though largely of dubious value.  The fact that we spent a trillion dollars to keep a bunch of bankers employed, while technically a win for the nation’s employment statistics, was arguably not the application that would have attained the utilitarian goal of the Greatest Good for the Greatest Number.


This week saw a convergence of data points that all point to the likelihood that Chairman Bernanke wants to retain Friends in High Places, assuming that his legacy will be set not by those who write history – and especially not by those who live it – but by those who decide what gets published.  (Quoth the Duke of Gloucester, patron of historian Edward Gibbon, upon being presented with the completed Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, “Another damned thick, square book!  Always scribble, scribble, scribble, eh?”)


We don’t mean to scoff at the very real suffering caused by economic collapse, but Hedgeye holds firm to the view that government meddling in the economy is generally not a good thing, and that a long-term program of persistent government meddling in the economy is a decidedly harmful thing.  Government intervention has the predictable effect of shortening economic cycles, while also increasing volatility – perhaps two sides of the same coin of time compression.  In consequence, it also has the predictable effect of generally not really fixing anything and of battering the middle class, edging them nearer to the abyss with each new policy nudge.


By the Fed’s own reckoning, each successive round of QE has a diminishing impact on the markets.  Mind you, that impact is measured in basis points – one-hundredths of a percent – and the twenty-five basis point impact looked for from any future round of QE is not predicted to last.  The banks are still not lending, largely because of uncertainty over government policy.  But don’t blame the banks.  People aren’t borrowing, for much the same reason: no one wants to take a loan to expand a business that might be shot execution style by the Fed suddenly reversing its interest rate policy.


So, if the Fed’s easy money policy is not supporting the “real economy,” who is benefitting from it?


Most excess liquidity seems to be supporting the short-term trading of major financial houses – which helps explain the furor over the Volcker Rule, designed with the sole purpose of walling off risk trading from deposit taking (a proposition that a tenth-grader could clearly articulate in a single sentence – do you know a tenth grader who wants to be President?)


Wealthy folks are going to get wealthier through this artificial inflation in asset prices.  This has been the effect of each previous round of money printing, and is likely to continue.  But each successive round of QE also takes a moral chunk out of the nation’s Middle Class, not to mention shredding American credibility in the global marketplace.  Our markets used to be the gleaming city on the hill.  Now they are just the Best House in a Bad Neighborhood.  How long before they turn into a slum? 


Hedgeye’s institutional clients were treated this week to an exclusive conference call with George Friedman, founder and chairman of Stratfor, the global intelligence and strategic risk assessment consultancy.  Friedman says the decimation of the middle class brought about by government neglect and economic malaise has historically been a key indicator of pending social unrest.  We think America still has a way to go before chaos strikes, but we remember that Secretary Paulson got Congress to trigger TARP by predicting there would be marshal law within a matter of days – a dire prediction that this nation’s leaders bought into.  TARP was passed with a large number of legislators never having even read the bill.


If you were worried that Washington might actually get some control over Bad Actors in the financial sector, you can breathe easy.  All that posturing and crying “Sh*t!” in a crowded Senate hearing made for mildly engaging reality TV, but in the end Business As Usual remains the mantra in the City of the Perpetual Extended Palm.  (For colorful commentary on the Senate financial crisis hearings, and other Washington-to-Wall-Street low points, see the Hedgeye e-book Fixing A Broken Wall Street).  Bernanke’s fiddling in the system has the effect of trashing the Dollar, and of spiking asset prices – the value of stocks in your 401(K) just went up, but so did the price of gas, effectively an instantaneous tax hike.  By creating waves of volatility in the markets, Bernanke is doing his utmost to keep the bankers banking and the traders trading. 


To return to scary summer movie metaphors, while you are out frolicking in the surf, why are the Central Planners avoiding the sunlight?  Are they vampires, or do they just not like being around We The People?  Be careful out there: even at low tide you won’t see the shark until it’s upon you.


Sector Spotlight: Industrials – Who’s Stalking FedEx?

“No comment” is a splendid expression.  I am using it again and again.

- Winston Churchill

“No comment” says Pershing Square Capital, responding to rumors that activist investor Bill Ackman, was raising funds to take a stake in FedEx (FDX).  FDX traded up 6% on Tuesday on over 15 million shares, the biggest single-day trading volume since December 1998.


Hedgeye’s Industrials sector head Jay Van Sciver ran a Hedgeye Flash Call presenting the case for activist intervention.  Van Sciver says the right kind of intervention could be a boon to shareholders.  But he cautions that an activist would have to work with the Board and management.  If an activist pushes for integration of FDX’s Ground and Express networks, Van Sciver says that would be a misguided and dangerous idea.


The Bull Case for FDX

Luck favors the prepared mind.

- Louis Pasteur

Van Sciver has featured FDX in our Investing Ideas newsletter and has been doggedly positive on the stock, sometimes as the lone voice pushing a well-wrought bullish thesis on FDX in the face of analysts who found the stock “Not In The Same League as UPS.” 


When the rumor mill sparked a giant day in FDX shares, Van Sciver showed Hedgeye’s institutional clients that the same qualities that make FDX an outstanding investment opportunity also make it attractive to an activist: the company’s stock is cheap and its problems can be fixed.  And while waiting for management – or an activist – to implement the fix, FDX continues to be a solid company with one of the world’s great franchises.  Analyst ratings on the stock are generally positive, but Van Sciver says they dramatically underestimate the company’s potential.


FDX – A Very Friendly Takeover

Van Sciver looks at the opportunities in FDX the way an activist might see them, and how they could work through in implementation.


Valuation and Timing

The biggest drag on FDX is its Express business.  Van Sciver’s earlier work makes the case that, at current valuations, FDX shareholders effectively own the Express business for free.  This is due to lack of consistent management focus on profit margins, but also to a misunderstanding in the marketplace, where analysts and investors believe FDX suffers from not integrating its Ground and Express infrastructure.  While the Express business does need work, what it doesn’t need is to be rolled in with FDX’s other operations.


Comparing FDX’s valuation metrics to UPS’, one would expect the company that is steadily taking away market share in the higher-margin, higher-growth Ground segment and has the larger Express franchise to carry a higher valuation.  But on almost all standard analysts’ metrics, UPS stock is accorded much higher valuations than FDX.


Van Sciver says FDX’s dramatically improving profitability and growth, both off a lower base than UPS, should provide a springboard for earnings and stock price, and a focused activist might bring those gains sooner.


Are you listening, Mr. Icahn?


FDX’s Discount to UPS

Here’s where it’s “all over but the shouting.”  FDX’s granite-solid Ground franchise is steadily taking share from UPS.  Its Express business should enjoy scale advantages over UPS, but the division has suffered from high capital requirements combined with low returns, in part because of aggressive expansion.  Van Sciver says Express is the primary opportunity for long-term investors – sooner or later management is likely to work this operation up to much higher profitability.  For an activist, the objective would be sooner. 


Excellent Industry Structure

FDX competes in an industry that is favorably structured from the perspective of participants.  There are only a few major players – DHL, UPS, FDX.  Barriers to entry are massive, including such concerns as acquiring your own fleet of trucks and aircraft, and negotiating access at airports all around the world.


In the US, there are two players: FDX and UPS.  Outside of the US they share the rest of the globe with DHL and, to a lesser extent, TNT.


One of FDX’s biggest cost advantages is its low cost of labor.  Unlike unionized UPS, FDX operates mostly with non-union employees and, increasingly, with outside contractors.  Van Sciver believes that the difference in total compensation between UPS and FDX employees should continue to be a significant driver of share gains. 


It is in the Express business that FDX’s margins still lag, with excess capacity creating a drag on the whole company.  Much of this excess capacity comes from management’s deliberate strategy of capturing market share globally, at the expense of near-term profits.  FDX has captured significant share in markets like Asia, but have seen profitability depressed in the process. 


What’s An Activist To Do?

Van Sciver’s short To-Do list for an activist includes:

-          Inject better discipline into capital allocation

-          Improve dialogue with shareholders

-          Focus management on profitability

-          Don’t integrate Ground and Express.


FDX management has different priorities from shareholders at points, a lack of shareholder focus that has hurt the company’s relations with shareholders.  An activist could put pressure on them to stay focused on profitability in their already-robust network.  Van Sciver says an acquisition of TNT, for example, might make a lot of sense at this juncture.


CEO Fred Smith is a bona fide corporate titan, a legitimate visionary who has built one of the world’s great businesses.  Perhaps not surprisingly for such a high-quality management team, Smith has not stacked the board of directors with his cronies.  This is an unusual – maybe a non-obvious – consideration for an activist entering the picture to encourage “self-help” and make the existing company better at what it already does.


Finally, the fly in the analytical ointment has long been perceived inefficiency between the Ground and Express operating parallel infrastructures.  FDX is routinely criticized for “inefficiency,” but Van Sciver says integrating these operations may actually kill FDX’s advantages.  First, it could open up the Ground business to unionization, and the joint handling of Ground packages could jeopardize Express employees’ Railway Labor Act coverage, also facilitating unionization in that division.  This could undermine FDX’s cost advantage, leaving UPS the big winner.  FDX’s infrastructure is definitely not broke, says Van Sciver, so please, Mr. Activist, don’t try to fix it.



FDX is one of the world’s great franchises.  Van Sciver’s says the sum of today’s parts, with improved margins in its Express business, could yield a stock price more than 50% above where it currently trades.  An activist who is willing to cooperate could be just the thing to focus management to get there.  It would require someone willing to partner with Fred Smith, rather than going head to head with him. 


Any takers?


Investing Term of the Week: Buy Side, Sell Side

If you’ve run out of depressing, disgusting and demeaning voyeuristic options for summer reading, you may want to try the latest Wall Street tell-all book, The Buy Side, the real-life story of a man who was born with it all, made it all, had it all – then smoked, drank and mainlined it all, and is now hoping to get paid seven figures by writing about it all.


The author was formerly a trader at Galleon Group, home of convicted felon Raj Rajaratnam.  The book purports to Tell It Like It Was in the halls of one of the most successful financial firms on the planet and a firm that, as court proceedings subsequently showed, took the notion of Wall Street’s “Buy Side” to new levels. 


Market pros generally are divided into two camps, known as the Buy Side and the Sell Side.  There is a significant difference in the way securities analysts follow and report on the sectors and companies they follow.


As you may divine from the terms, the Sell Side creates products, which it peddles to the Buy Side.  What you may not understand is that the Buy Side is generally required to buy, as many portfolio managers have a contractual mandate to be 100% invested at all times.  This keeps the Sell side in business, but often jeopardizes your portfolio.  Here’s one secret every investor should know: You never have to buy or sell anything.  Unlike the manager of a long-only stock mutual fund, you have the option of getting out entirely and going to cash when storm clouds gather on the horizon.  “Gee, the water looks kinda choppy today…”  “Never mind!” says the mutual fund manager.  “In you go!  Shark?  I don’t see any – !!!”


Sell Side analysts work for brokerage firms and are compensated in trading commissions.  The only way for a Sell Side analyst to earn a living is by convincing people to trade.  Responding to Bernanke’s latest manipulation of the markets, Hedgeye CEO McCullough said in exasperation, “He’s chopping off the legs of US economic growth.  I’m tempted to just sit out the rest of the year!”  But on the traditional Sell Side, no one gets paid for issuing a report saying “our markets are psychotic – best not do anything this year.”


Historically, sell side analysts have also been exposed to real conflicts of interest when their firm performs investment banking for a company they cover.  It is not uncommon for analysts to “reiterate” a positive recommendation on a company the day after the stock takes a dive.  While these figures are not disclosed, it is often a safe bet that major institutional clients of the brokerage firm have sizeable positions in the stocks in question.  A reiterated BUY recommendation can help reflate their portfolios – or even provide liquidity for them to get out while the getting’s good.


More subtly, investors believe they get better value from research that comes directly from management (sort of “Inside Information Lite”) so sell side analysts cherish their own relationship with the senior executives of the companies they cover.  An analyst who asks uncomfortable questions – or actually writes negative research on a company – will find the CFO no longer returns their phone calls, and they don’t get to ask their questions at analyst day meetings with management.


Sell side firms also do a brisk business in “corporate access” (“Inside Information Not-So-Lite”) arranging one-on-one meetings between the investor and management.  Sell side analysts may not even be present at these sit-downs, but their firm racks up a fee, often in the tens of thousands of dollars.  Academic studies show that hedge fund managers who regularly obtain corporate access perform several percentage points better than the average.  All right, we know: “correlation” is not the same as “causation.”  Probably why Congress doesn’t think this form of inside information is important.


The Buy Side is completely different.  While Sell Side analysts are assigned a list of companies and told to write maintenance research, to service the accounts that hold these positions, and work the relationships with investors and with corporate managements, Buy Siders have one job only: to be right.


The analytical tools used by both groups are essentially the same, including relying on each other’s work.  Buy siders get access to sell side research, but most sell siders have free access to all the other research in their sector anyway, so what is really significant is the order in which they absorb the information, and the weight they give to data points.  A sell sider’s value is not in being right on a stock call.  More often it is a key bit of information or an unusual data point that gets the buy side client’s interest.  If the buy side analyst likes the idea, his firm will put a trade through the sell sider’s trading desk.  If the trade works out, the sell sider gets paid a commission, and the buy sider gets told “keep up the good work.”  If the trade loses, the sell side analyst still gets paid the commission.  But the buy sider might be told “pack up your desk.”


Hedgeye was founded on the principles of Transparency, Accountability and Trust.  Our simple objective is to be your personal Buy Side research team.  With no trading, no commission sharing, and no money under management, our mission is to democratize investment research by offering individuals the same depth of research and the same quality of insight that we provide to some of the world’s top money managers – and with the same timing. 


We believe our structure has removed the inherent conflicts that have plagued Wall Street for so long.  Without trying to sound too angelic, we’re battling not merely entrenched opinion, but an industry structure that is inimical to the investor’s best interests.  It’s hard trying to be transparent in an industry built on opacity.  It’s hard to work in the best interest of the investor in an industry where conflict of interest has been the primary driver of revenues.  We don’t criticize our brothers and sisters in the trenches of Finance.  Like all true revolutionaries, we invite them to join us.


You are now a Buy Sider.  Welcome to the struggle.                                                        

Early Look

daily macro intelligence

Relied upon by big institutional and individual investors across the world, this granular morning newsletter distills the latest and most vital market developments and insures that you are always in the know.