China: Handle With Care

Takeaway: China: can the Forbidden Economy be rescued? One expert says Yes – but there’s work to be done.

Will China Break?

Hedgeye hosted a conference call on Monday with Dr. Carl Walter, author of Red Capitalism: The Fragile Foundation of China’s Extraordinary Rise.  Dr. Walter received his PhD in political science from Stanford University, where he has now returned as a visiting scholar.  Dr. Walter spent two decades in Beijing in the investment banking sector, including a decade as chief executive officer of JPMorgan’s China banking subsidiary.  


Dr. Walter led off with his conclusion: in his opinion, China will not break.  But it may bend quite significantly.


Who’s In Charge?

While many in the West view China as a centralized one-party dictatorship, Dr. Walter says this is simplistic and wrong.  China’s consolidated power structure is made up of a complex web of interconnected entities, each with their own interest, and each with their own levers of power.  Dr. Walter compares the China of today to Europe.  Even though the nation is run by a central Party, much of the actual power is de-centralized across geographic and economic mini-centers.  


And Power is what it is all about.  The challenge every political official faces is, How to stay in power?  The answer in every case is, Create economic growth and do it in a way that reinforces social stability.  The average Western observer may not appreciate how delicate China’s social fabric feels.  If the head that wears a crown lies uneasy, imagine being one of a small cluster of crowned heads – all with competing interests – with 1.3 billion potentially dissatisfied subjects.  Clearly, it’s not all dumplings and wine at Central Party HQ.


Banking On It

The big banks are the pillar of China’s economic system, providing the funding that drives economic programs.  Individual Chinese do not deposit their money in small local banks, because they know local institutions are essentially powerless.  China’s five biggest banks hold over 60% of the nation’s deposits, with a more than equivalent share of influence.  


Policy makers pushed for greater corporate capital raising in recent years, in their efforts to stimulate growth.  The banks dominated the marketplace, but without a developed capital market, “capital expansion” was really expansion further into the banks’ balance sheets.  New bank loans accounted for over 85% of capital raised in 2009 – the peak year for corporate capital expansion, with over 11 billion reminbi (RMB) raised.  The balance was corporate bonds – zero equity capital was raised that year – and most of the bonds are, in turn, bought by the large banks.  Where does the money go?  


Seventy-five percent of corporate bonds are issued by State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs), while 20% go to the financial platforms of a host of joint ventures and other private financial vehicles, much of it in connection with local economic programs.  Financing from private deposits is already used up, and there is little or no equity financing, making China’s economy look like the serpent that swallows its own tail.     


The drain on bank balance sheets is exacerbated by China’s rating agencies, which rate all corporate bond issues and corporate loans as investment grade.  These means the banks have to make only minimal loss provisions – or none at all – as they continue to expand outstanding credit to an ever-larger percentage of their asset base.


There is no liquid trading market for corporate bonds, which means the prices don’t fluctuate.  “Marking to market” can only happen if the market actually exists.  With no trading in the bonds, the prices don’t change, so banks don’t have to reflect lower asset values on their balance sheets.


Like any enclosed economic construct, this system functions perfectly well, until it doesn’t.


Bulls – And  Bears – In China’s Shop

The banks over-lent in the 1980s and were reined in during the 1990s, giving way to a brief inflationary period in the early 2000s, all while China’s central planners were trying to figure out how to best grow their economy to keep the largest numbers of citizens content.


Now the banks are lending but not generating economic growth.  The central authorities recognize that banking may no longer be the economic solution for China and the discussion now is about changing business models.


But to what?


Any business model requires fundamental underpinnings.  With the banks so dominant in China’s economy, Dr. Walter says corporate governance is a glaring weak point.


Even though the major banks are listed on the Hong Kong exchange, and even though they are subject to public company audits, Dr. Walter says the real management of the banks is not their boards of directors, but the Party committee.  In fact, until recently it was not even Beijing, but regional party committees who directed bank operations, as so much lending was tied to regional projects.  


In the past, local officials or Party cadres who wanted to advance their careers would lean on banks to over-lend locally to drive economic growth in their region.  In the 1980s, when the banks prepared to list on the Hong Kong exchange, control was centralized to Beijing.  In 2008, when the central Party announced their intention to lend in order to stimulate the economy, provincial party officials went into a feeding frenzy.  Local projects were proposed and approved left and right and, says Dr. Walter, “the banks lent like crazy.”  In this scenario, Beijing lost a significant amount of influence over the banking system even while nominally retaining control.


China still has far to go before it develops credible capital markets.  Dr. Walter calls China’s stock market an economic “afterthought.”  The stock markets were primarily a policy tool to permit China’s SOEs to incorporate and establish a presence and a valuation for their securities.  Out of tens of millions of trading accounts on China’s exchanges, only about 7% actually execute transactions.  


Where To Next?

China’s big banks are the economy.  This goes beyond Too Big To Fail.  The Chinese will not allow their big banks to fail.  When Lehman was put into bankruptcy, says Dr. Walter, the Chinese were flabbergasted.  They simply could not understand how the US government could allow a “flagship name” institution to fail.  Could it be, they wondered, the US was actually too weak to rescue a major investment bank?  


China will have a difficult time creating a financial marketplace.  Until it does, there will be no market discipline to accurately price its securities, bonds and loans, to attract serious inflows of foreign capital, or to drive growth.


Government policy has distorted the pricing of bank portfolios.  Currently, there is a 3% differential in yields between corporate loans and bonds.  Since the same entities that issue bonds also take out bank loans, there is no incentive to create a bond trading market.  The banks continue to dominate – or to be stuck with – the lion’s share of Chinese debt.  Chinese households own less than 5% of the nation’s bonds, while foreigners own less than 2%.  Despite noises from such potential buyers as Australia, there is no significant outside market to create accurate pricing or provide liquidity for China’s banks.

Without liquid markets, how do the banks stay afloat?  Remember that the bonds don’t trade – which means no liquidity for the banks (bad) – but it also means the price of the bonds in their portfolios never changes (good!)  Far better[easier] than issuing new bonds to pay off the old ones, China’s banks simply extend maturities – extend and pretend.


This is simply [at worst] unsustainable [and at best economically unhealthy].  All the more so as Chinese local governments and the SOEs turn out to be bad credit risks.  In the 1990s, says Dr. Walter, banks loans rose as high as 75% of GDP – and up to 25% of loans went bad.  Now, the level of problem loans has declined slightly – around 20% in 2010 – but total loans have soared to over 130% of GDP.


In the past decade, the more banks have loaned, the slower China’s economy has grown.  Lending has continued to flow to massive projects driven more by concerns over social stability than by economic justification.  Local debt continues to pile up – by some estimates it could be up to RMB 16 trillion today – a RMB 6 trillion increase over 2011 – on a current GDP of about RMB 45 trillion.  China has borrowed itself into a quagmire, by borrowing from itself for dubious projects.  It has perhaps not been more profligate in its misuse of debt than the West – indeed, Dr. Walter says a global economic recovery will [would] play a significant role in revitalizing China’s economy.  



China’s Party officials remain deeply concerned over potential civil unrest and will continue to focus on local economic programs.  But the country is already significantly overbuilt.  At the same time, economic inequality continues to grow. 


Some 300 million people have been brought up out of poverty in China in the last 20 years – but that leaves one billion people who have not.  Central Party officials and their hangers-on will continue to grow richer, as will those living and working in the prosperous coastal regions.  Dr. Walter expects the rest of the society to decline economically, leading to ever-greater inequality.  China’s aging population does not have Medicare or 401(K) accounts – they have only their savings – and less of a younger generation to rely on, thanks to years of the one child per family policy.  


The difficulty of establishing a consumer-based economy under these circumstances could pale next to a very real possibility of severe social problems, and possible social unrest, in the coming 3-5 years.  This has Party officials constantly looking over their shoulders.


Dr. Walter says China’s banks are not headed for collapse.  There are plenty of assets available to fill the gap left by an unreliable financial system.  But China does not have a good record on financial reform.  Its most significant players – the SOEs, the banks, and the local party organizations – are opposed to it, as each sees the current dysfunction as working to their advantage.  It will take ingenuity and cooperation and the forceful exercise of political authority to bring meaningful change, and the key to how well and how quickly the Chinese ship can be righted lies with the personalities at the center.  

Walter says Xi Jinping, the new General Secretary, is an excellent man for the job: he is outgoing, relaxed and confident in public, and has the support of the military.  But one man is not sufficient to change the course of the gargantuan ship of the Chinese state.  


Finally, China is a major piece of the global financial puzzle.  It will not recover on its own.  Its own recovery will be both a result of, and an influence on global economic trends.


BUD – Q1 Results More Bad than Good

BUD reported Q1 EPS this morning and ABI BB is currently down about 3% in European trading – volume was weak across the board and volume guidance was soft relative to expectations.

What we liked:

  • Beat on EPS ($1.16 versus $0.98 consensus), but entirely due to below the line items (tax rate, lower interest expense year on year)
  • Pricing remained robust leading to constant currency organic revenue growth of +1.5% against a reasonably difficult comparison (Q2 comps ease, Q3 and Q4 stiffen) despite a decline in volume

What we didn’t like:

  • Volume softness across multiple regions save for Asia Pacific with organic volume declining 4.1% against the most difficult comparison of the year
  • Market share decline in the U.S. (50 bps)
  • Lack of operating leverage (unsurprising, given volume declines) as constant currency EBIT grew only 0.2% on constant currency revenue growth of +1.5%
  • Gross margin declined 133 bps against the most difficult comparison of the year
  • Cautious volume commentary on Brazil (industry flat to down low-single versus prior view of low to mid-single digit growth)

Stepping back for a moment and looking at BUD within the context of the broader consumer staples group, we continue to struggle to find names that we are comfortable with over almost any duration given what we see as the currently stretched state of valuations.  With BUD, we have good visibility on double digit EPS growth driven by continued strong pricing, merger synergies (eventually) and below the line items - even factoring in continued volume weakness.  The company’s FCF yield (7%) remains attractive relative to the group.  Based on that context, we are going to keep BUD on our preferred list.  We expect a couple of European sell-side downgrades, just because that is how those analysts generally roll, but we think BUD continues to make sense once the impact of this quarter shakes out.


Call with questions,




Robert  Campagnino

Managing Director





Matt Hedrick

Senior Analyst

Morning Reads From Our Sector Heads

Keith McCullough (CEO):


Corn Erases Gain as Supplies May Be Ample Amid Planting Delay (via Bloomberg)

Todd Jordan (GLL):


Online poker is back: Legal website launches in NV (via Yahoo! News)


Norwegian says sales uplift vindicates 10% commission move (via Travel Weekly)

Rob Campagnino (Consumer Staples):


Anheuser-Busch InBev Sales Miss Street Expectations (via Fox Business News)


Josh Steiner (Financials):


Most Banks Could Still Profit Under Tough New Overhaul Proposal (via NYT Dealbook)


MBIA Loses Bid for Ruling on Countrywide Loan Repurchase (via Bloomberg)


BofA Asks Judge to Throw Out Mortgage Suit (via WSJ)


Kevin Kaiser (Energy):


Boom Times for a Tiny Texas Town (via WSJ)


Brian McGough (Retail):


Demands for Action as Bangladesh Death Toll Mounts (via WWD)


Under Armour, On Setup Shop In Rose City (via SGI News)


Early Look

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Euro Trip

Client Talking Points

Talk About It

Everyone is talking about Europe, the ECB and Mario Draghi. Will he institute a rate cute this week? If not, will investors be sorely disappointed or can they swallow the reality that rates could stay the same? Regardless of the actual outcome, the Euro is taking a hit this morning against the US Dollar and has dropped below out TAIL risk line of $1.316

Step By Step

The Asian markets are following the lead of the US and are rallying hard with Korea's KOSPI index putting up +1.2% to the upside overnight. That puts the index back above our TREND line of resistance of 1943. It has the ability to continue to rally if US tech doesn't get clobbered and if the Yen can stop its bleeding. That remains to be seen for now.

Asset Allocation


Top Long Ideas

Company Ticker Sector Duration

Decent earnings visibility, stabilized market share, and aggressive share repurchases should keep a floor on the stock.  Near-term earnings, potentially big orders from Oregon and South Dakota, and news of proliferating gaming domestically could provide near term catalysts for a stock that trades at only 11x EPS.  We believe that multiple is unsustainably low – and management likely agrees given the buyback – for a company with the balance sheet and strong cash flow as IGT.  Given private equity’s interest in WMS (they lost out to SGMS) – a company similar to IGT that unlike IGT generates little free cash – we wouldn’t rule out a privatizing transaction to realize the inherent value in this company. 


WWW is one of the best managed and most consistent companies in retail. We’re rarely fans of acquisitions, but the recent addition of Sperry, Saucony, Keds and Stride Rite (known as PLG) gives WWW a multi-year platform from which to grow 


With FedEx Express margins at a 30+ year low and 4-7 percentage points behind competitors, the opportunity for effective cost reductions appears significant. FedEx Ground is using its structural advantages to take market share from UPS. FDX competes in a highly consolidated industry with rational pricing. Both the Ground and Express divisions could be separately worth more than FDX’s current market value, in our view.

Three for the Road


"Last day of the month...always interesting ~ #BuckleUp" -@TheKillir


"When a thing ceases to be a subject of controversy, it ceases to be a subject of interest." -William Hazlitt


Employment cost index rises 0.3% in first quarter of 2013.


In preparation for HYATT's F1Q 2013 earnings release tomorrow, we’ve put together the recent pertinent forward looking company commentary.




  • "Our expectation on the market is that there will be periods of time where there maybe is matches between supply and demand as new hotels come online, but over the long haul, we think our positioning in China is very strong."
  • "In India, what we're seeing right now is continued interest in all of our brands. India is a market is experiencing some softness from a macroeconomic point of view, and while that we haven't experienced any softness in our pipeline that's one thing we're mindful of going forward."
  • "With regard to that executed contract base, 45,000 rooms …, less than 10% of it are owned or joint venture rooms, so the majority are managed or franchised. Our total commitments into future periods is… roughly $560 million. Those commitments are in the form of equity, joint ventures, loans, mezzanine debt and other types of investments that we plan on making to support that pipeline. There are two projects in particular that are a little chunkier, one being our investment in the Park Hyatt, New York. We expect to acquire that hotel upon completion of construction mid 2014. And our expectation is our two-thirds interest in that hotel will be $250 million, we have a fixed price purchase contract. Although we could apply some project level debt to that project in which case the amount of funding could be up to $125 million less than the $250 million if you apply 50% leverage. The Andaz Wailea is another high profile project that's within that $560 million, that hotel is under development right now, it's a joint venture with Starwood Capital. We expect to open that hotel sometime in the third quarter of this year."
  • "We think about that executed contract base and 45,000 rooms is that on average these hotels take about five years to open from the time of contract signing, which is when we include it in that executed contract base, to opening. Some of the international full-service hotels in our base will take a little bit longer than that and select service hotels will take a little bit less than that, but on average about five years."
  • "If you look at the openings we've forecasted, for this year we expect to open approximately 30 hotels."
  • "What some of the leading brokerage houses and others are saying, they expect transaction activity in the U.S. for instance to be up at least 25% this year versus last year. So you're seeing more transaction activity and therefore there will be higher ability for us to participate.  On a net basis, we've been an acquirer. Going forward, we'll take a balanced approach."
  • "If you think about our business in North America particularly of full service hotels, 45% to 50% of that mix is group-oriented.  The two main segments of group business are corporate group and association group. On the corporate side, what you're seeing is low levels of visibility…  a lot of bookings for forward 90-day period. So short-term bookings and the bookings are tending to be a little bit smaller, both in terms of number of room nights as well as duration of meetings and I think some of that speaks to uncertainty on the part of corporations to make long-term forward commitments... With regard to associations that have more visibility into the future are making those longer-term commitments. So, you're seeing strength on the association side for future periods."
  • "Markets and hotels that have been more transient oriented have outperformed. So, on the transient side, of course visibility is lower, generally folks don't make their transient room commitments until a few weeks before the travel dates. So, we have less visibility on that piece of the business, but strength continues to be positive."
  • "The focus on the capital base is really building out the platform, that's first and foremost. I think in the context of that, we do recognize that we can create value by return of capital as well, and we have in the past returned capital to shareholders in the form of share repurchases. So, we bought back about $400 million of stock in 2011 and then last year in the summer, our board authorized the repurchase of up to $200 million of stock in the third and fourth quarter. We expended about $135 million repurchasing stock. So that has been a part of the story in terms of value creation over the last couple of years, and we still have capacity left under that $200 million authorization." 
  • "Based on the facts and circumstances, their [Board’s] belief and our belief was return of capital through share repurchases made more sense for us. The way we view dividends is if you look at operating cash flow less CapEx, what's remaining, and is that what's remaining significant enough to pay a meaningful dividend; and frankly if you look at our history over the last few years, operating cash flow has been recovering and we have been spending quite a lot of money  in  CapEx, particularly with regard to improvements at some of our own hotels. Now we're past most of that outsize spending at least with regard to improvements at owned hotels at this point, but that's been a relatively recent occurrence. So I wouldn't say it's off the table, but I would say it's not something that we're looking at implementing in the short-term."
  • "Looking ahead, we expect margin expansion to be a function of and dependent upon higher rates at our hotels and higher levels of food and beverage revenues and profitability. We believe higher rates are likely going forward as occupancies now are at peak or near peak levels. Margin expansion represents significant future earnings potential for the company."
  • "We've also started marketing six owned full service hotels in the U.S. These hotels in the aggregate earned about $25 million in adjusted EBITDA in 2012. If we do ultimately sell these hotels, we'll maintain brand presence through long-term agreements."



  • "Hyatt Regency New Orleans--We anticipated earning a low-teens percentage return when we underwrote the deal. But based on the strong performance of the hotel, our current expectation is that we'll earn a return higher than that, in the mid to high-teens."
  • "In May 2011, we acquired three extended stay hotels in California and projected reaching a 10% cash-on-cash return by stabilization. We're well on our way towards that, with a 2012 adjusted EBITDA yield of over 10%, which we expect to increase after we renovate these three properties."
  • "We acquired the Hyatt Regency Birmingham in England this past November, with an expectation that we would earn $5 million of adjusted EBITDA in 2013. While it's still early days, based on progress at that hotel, we believe we could exceed our initial expectations. "
  • "We expect 2013 to be a year of stable growth. While we believe that the first half of the year has the potential be somewhat choppy, we're optimistic for the whole year based really on four primary indicators."
  • "2013 group pace for full-serviced managed hotels in the U.S. is up about 4%. We're seeing significant levels of group production. December was our busiest group production month since late 2007, and January was good as well."
  • "While the booking window is lengthening in certain cases, we're still seeing high levels of activity for close-in dates. For example, 40% of the group production in January was for the following 90 days."
  • "Our corporate negotiated rate discussions have yielded mid-to-high single-digit percentage rate increases."
  • "Transient demand continues to bolster results."
  • "We expect certain specific items may negatively impact us in the first part of this year and the impact will lessen as the year progresses. These items would include: the ongoing renovations of several large managed hotels, both in the U.S. and the ASPAC region, market conditions in several international markets with significant new supply growth such as Baku and some cities in India, lower levels of government demand in some markets, specific areas of expense pressure, such as insurance costs and real estate taxes for owned and leased hotels, and a continued lag in the recovery of F&B spending as groups and banquet customers limit their spending. We expect these items to negatively impact us by $3 million to $6 million per quarter over the next several quarters, primarily due to lower fees as a result of renovations of managed properties. We expect that this level of quarterly impact will start at the higher end of the range, exacerbated a bit by the timing of Easter this year, and will trend down as the year progresses."
  • "On the buy side, we're looking at a number of potential new investments, including acquisitions and investments in joint venture hotels, both existing JV properties and new properties in the U.S., Latin America and in Europe. Deal flow is higher than it's been over the last few years and we are actively looking at investments in excess of $100 million in these types of projects."
  • "We remain very focused on and disciplined around how we're actually managing costs at our properties. And if you look at cost per occupied room, which is not the only measure that's relevant, but it is one metric, it's been flat basically since 2007. For our select service hotels, partly by virtue of some shared services initiatives, we've actually seen a decline over that period of time in cost per occupied room."
  • "With regard to openings this coming year, about half international and half within the U.S. And two-thirds of all the hotels are managed properties."
  • [Incentive fees] "So for 2013 we will see a continuation of some choppiness"
  • "Maintenance CapEx remains relatively steady at approximately 5% of owned revenues" 
  • "From an owned perspective, we will continue to see supply issues in Baku, where we have an oversupply of hotel rooms. We also expect continuing issues in India with regards to the  economical challenges they have there and some government policies. There are some markets in China where we see some short-term supply impacts. But those will in the medium to long term regulate itself because there is still an undersupply in our belief in the major markets there. And some headwinds are going to be created by the renovations in key gateway cities in Asia."

Predicting The Past

This note was originally published at 8am on April 16, 2013 for Hedgeye subscribers.

“We cannot predict where it might be headed in the future, but we can describe how it came to be in the past.”

-Eric Chaisson


First, my entire team’s thoughts and prayers go out to all of the people affected by the horrible act at the Boston Marathon yesterday.


Without having inside information, predicting an external event like that is impossible. So is consistently predicting tops and bottoms in markets. They are processes, not points. It’s my job to A) contextualize the past so that B) I put us in the best position I can for the future.


Yesterday’s market collapse started with more of what has been happening for months – commodities collapsing. Combine intermediate-term TREND collapse with an immediate-term external event and you run out of time and space into the market’s close. That’s why describing where we came from to reach an intraday capitulation like that is critical this morning.


Back to the Global Macro Grind


Historical Context:

  1. SP500 was immediate-term TRADE overbought into last week’s all-time closing high of 1593 (so we made sales there)
  2. CRB Commodities Index was already in a Bearish Formation going into yesterday’s open (bearish TRADE/TREND/TAIL)
  3. Gold was not only in a Bearish Formation into Friday’s close, it started crashing pre-open yesterday too

Crashes (20% peak-to-trough declines) are very bad. We don’t buy those. Predicting The Past on that score is actually quite easy. Old Wall calls it “catching a falling knife” for a reason. Unless you have a catalyst, “cheap” gets a lot cheaper during a crash in price expectations.


But the thing about the past, on both things that matter to our process (Research and Risk Signals) is that you can see it today. That’s why our Research and Risk Management Models often get lucky in not being long something like Gold, Energy, or Brazil on days like yesterday. A multi-duration, multi-factor, Research and Risk Management #Process makes its own luck.


Describing how Bernanke’s Bubble (Commodities) is deflating is actually quite easy. You simply have to accept causality in terms of what made Bubble#3 (Greenspan/Bernanke Bubbles #1 and #2 were Tech and Housing) to begin with. If you reverse that causal factor’s intermediate-term TREND (Dollar Up instead of Debauched), you start describing why the Commodity/Gold Bubble is popping.


Reviewing 2013 YTD:

  1. Gold Miners (GDX) are down -37% YTD
  2. Gold is down -18% YTD
  3. Copper is down -11% YTD

Freeport McMoran (FCX) is a Gold and Copper expectations proxy (that’s why we’re short it); it’s down -14% YTD. And Brazil’s stock market (the best liquid proxy for a country commodity index) is down -13.1% YTD. For the month-to-date (APR) alone, Basic Materials (XLB) and Energy (XLE) stocks are down -4.8% and -5.7%, respectively.


This is why describing where we are matters. It’s the #CommodityDeflation that’s been driving US Consumption expectations higher all year long too. Q: So on the biggest down day for both US stocks and commodities of the year, why didn’t I buy US stocks yesterday? A: it’s the signal – and, above all else, I respect the market’s Risk Management Signal.


For US stocks, let’s go through why I’m at 10 LONGS, 9 SHORTS @Hedgeye instead of sending you another “Buyem” email into the close:

  1. SP500 broke my immediate-term TRADE line of 1557 support yesterday (that was new)
  2. US Equity Volatility (VIX) broke out above my immediate-term TRADE line of 14.07 resistance yesterday
  3. S&P Sector Studies flagged 5 of 9 core Sectors broken on our immediate-term TRADE duration

Those 3 things, combined with a nasty volume signal (+32% vs my TREND avg), predicts plenty enough for me to do 1 thing in a situation like that (a situation I have seen many times before) – to simply wait and watch.


I’m not happy to miss a big US stock market open, but if I do, I know why I made that decision. Having sold into an immediate-term TRADE overbought signal of 1593, I’m more than happy to wait and see if the bulls recapture 1557. If they can, with intermediate-term TREND support for the SP500 (1515) and TREND resistance for the VIX (18.69) intact, predicting the past gets easier again.


My Macro Team and I will be hosting our Q213 Global Macro Themes Call at 1PM EST today. Please ping for the details. Our intermediate-term TREND to long-term TAIL Research Views will be the focus of that call. That always helps us contextualize what was confusing about yesterday’s immediate-term duration risk too.


Our immediate-term Risk Ranges for Gold, Oil (Brent), US Dollar, USD/YEN, EUR/USD, UST10yr Yield, VIX and the SP500 are now $1291-1464, $100.21-104.79, $82.04-83.14, 95.87-102.11, $1.28-1.31, 1.69-1.76%, 14.07-18.69, and 1537-1568, respectively.


Best of luck out there today,



Keith R. McCullough
Chief Executive Officer


Predicting The Past - Chart of the Day


Predicting The Past - Virtual Portfolio

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