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Hong Kong is Not Mainland China

Conclusion: The combination of slowing growth, accelerating inflation, and a property bubble that will either pop or continue to be addressed from a policy perspective has us bearish on Hong Kong equities over the intermediate-term TREND.


Position: Bearish on Hong Kong Equities for the intermediate-term TREND.


Of the limited push-back we have received on our Year of the Chinese Bull thesis, the off-limits nature of the Shanghai Composite Index to many foreign institutional investors appears to be among the most concerning. While it’s certainly true that capital controls prevent many funds from taking direct ownership of mainland Chinese equities, we don’t necessarily agree that the Hang Seng is always a safe substitute for your investment allocation to Chinese stocks.


While history shows us both indices tend to move in tandem, registering a positive correlation of r² = 0.77 over the last 20 years, further analysis shows that Hong Kong can indeed sucker punch investors looking for surrogate exposure to China. Pulling back a historical chart of the Shanghai Composite vs. the Hang Seng, we do find two periods where Hong Kong equities experienced major bear markets while Chinese equities either remained flat or appreciated slightly: 

  • During the period from August 6, 1997 to August 11, 1998, the Hang Seng Index lost (-59%) of its value while the Shanghai Composite gained +3%. Admittedly, the events of the Asian Financial Crisis, in which the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) was forced to aggressively defend the Hong Kong dollar from speculators, contributed to this large negative divergence.
  • During the period from March 27, 2000 to September 18, 2001 the Hang Seng Index lost (-49.1%) of its value while the Shanghai Composite gained +1.3%. As in the example above, special circumstances contributed to the Hang Seng’s drastic underperformance; a confluence of selling pressure from the HKMA unwinding the positions it took to support the market during the height of the Asian Financial Crisis, the SARS epidemic, and the Dot.com bubble bursting all played a role in the aforementioned bifurcation. 

Hong Kong is Not Mainland China - 1


Net-net, while we certainly agree that exogenous events have played a role in historical bifurcations of Hong Kong’s equity market performance from mainland China’s equity market performance, we think the simple point we are trying to make is clear enough – Hong Kong is not mainland China. On occasion, macro fundamentals have the ability to create incredible divergences in equity market performance over sustained periods of time. As such, we have been and will continue to analyze each market on its individual merit, rather than accepting them as a package deal.


On an individual basis, the fundamentals of Hong Kong’s economy do not warrant being long its equity market. From a growth perspective, Hong Kong’s GDP growth is slowing; the monster +7.2% YoY number in put up in 1Q (+170bps above consensus) only augments our call for a measured decline in the YoY growth rate of Hong Kong’s economy over the intermediate-term TREND.  From an expectations perspective, a slowdown is already built into the models of both Hong Kong policy makers (+5-6% YoY in 2011) and sell-side economists (+5.4% YoY in 2011 according to Bloomberg consensus estimates).


We do, however, question whether the magnitude of the slowdown is accurately reflected in current estimates. If the slope of Hong Kong’s yield curve is telling us anything, it’s that perhaps growth is slowing more than what is already baked in from an expectations perspective.


Hong Kong is Not Mainland China - 2


Additionally, having declined (-6.8%) from an intermediate-term lower-high on April 8th, the Hang Seng itself might be its own best leading indicator. Our quantitative models have it broken from an immediate-term TRADE perspective and demonstrably bearish from an intermediate-term TREND perspective, which tends to suggest risks to economic growth are mounting.


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Over the intermediate term, we flag inflation as the main risk to growth in Hong Kong. Early in the year, we made the research call that CPI in Hong Kong would accelerate and surprise investors to the upside, as the combination of easy credit (+31% YoY in March) and cash handouts totaling HK$6,000 to each permanent resident (in response to at least four major demonstrations protesting inflation) fuels demand-side price pressures, while the confluence of exorbitant property prices (+22.2% YoY in March) and higher commodity prices (CRB Index +34.6% YoY) fuels supply-side cost pressures.


As of April, CPI in Hong Kong hit a 32-month high of +4.6% YoY and our models have further upside over the intermediate term. The HKMA agrees, as evidenced by the recent upward revision of their full-year inflation forecast to +5.4% YoY from a prior estimate of +4.5% YoY. The sell-side has been slow to react, maintaining their +4.5% YoY forecast for Hong Kong’s 2011 CPI since late March (Bloomberg consensus estimates). All told, we expect higher rates of inflation to detract from Hong Kong’s economic growth over the intermediate term by slowing Household Consumption (~62% of GDP) and ratcheting up the GDP Deflator by which real growth is calculated.


Higher inflation, particularly in the property market, brings us to our third key reason for being bearish on Hong Kong equities over the intermediate-term TREND – macroeconomic policy. As mentioned before, property prices are indeed a major problem for Hong Kong consumers, as well as a major risk for Hong Kong’s banking system and economy at large.


According to proprietary data published by Centaline Property Agency, Hong Kong’s largest private real-estate broker, home values have surged +70% since the start of 2009 and are now at an all-time high. Their data has Hong Kong home prices +3% greater than the prior peak reached just prior to the Asian Financial Crisis. While our data has Hong Kong housing prices per square foot at “only” (-7.7%) below the prior peak on a nominal basis, the pace and magnitude of the recent run-up is similar across data-sets.


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As a result of this liquidity-fueled surge in property prices, in large part due to purchases by mainland Chinese buyers, Hong Kong now ranks dead last in the world (325 out of 325 major urban markets) on the metric of housing affordability, with the territory’s Median House Price at 11.4x Gross Annual Median Income. Government efforts introduced in November which included, among other things, a levy designed to discourage speculative transactions, have done little to cool the rapid inflation in Hong Kong’s housing market. On a YoY basis, growth in residential real-estate prices has bounced around in a tight range since the measures were implemented last fall.


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As recently as April we have, however, seen signs of cracking in this market, with the volume of transactions declining (-37.6%) YoY (a 25-month low) and the prices of those transactions falling (-26.8%) YoY (a 10-month low). While we need more data to accurately determine whether this is the start of a startling trend in Hong Kong, on an absolute level, the data is what it is – the first indication of property market weakness in quite some time. 


Despite this one-off sign of cooling, the HKMA remains vigilant in dealing with this issue – at least from a rhetorical perspective (the HK$’s peg to the USD prevents the de facto central bank from raising rates). As such, Hong Kong authorities remain limited in their policy options to deal with this issue, currently opting to run the “central banking 101” play of notifying the market that it is “watching price developments closely”.


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One of the more tangible things they can do in the near term to curb credit growth and mitigate the financial impact of a potential wave of defaults is by forcing Hong Kong’s banks to build reserves. While we believe that it is perhaps too early to call for a major property market bust in Hong Kong, we do not think it’s too early to start calling out the downside risk to Hang Seng earnings based on the likelihood of future reserve ratio hikes. Currently, the index is overwhelmingly weighted to the Financials (banks, real-estate developers, and insurance companies combine to equal 56.2% of the Hang Seng’s market cap.), so weakness in this sector has the ability to drag down the rest of the market on beta alone.


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All told, the combination of slowing growth, accelerating inflation, and a property bubble that will either pop or continue to be addressed from a policy perspective have us bearish on Hong Kong equities over the intermediate-term TREND. As the title aptly points out, Hong Kong is not mainland China.


Darius Dale


Is There A Silver Lining In Housing?

This morning U.S. new home sales were reported for the month of April and rose 7.3% month-over-month, climbing to 323K versus 301K in March.  Initially, this was treated as a positive data point by the market as the Homebuilding Index, represented by the ticker XHB, was trading up almost a percent in early trading.  Unfortunately, despite marginal sequential improvement, the April number is representative of a continuing bleak long-term trend.   


As outlined in the chart directly below, while the months of supply dropped to the second-lowest level since 2006, it is still well above the long term range of 4 – 5 months. 


Is There A Silver Lining In Housing? - 1


Further, our Financials Team has authored a long-term displacement theory as it relates to new home sales.  In effect, the theory postulates that because of the massive over-building that occurred, it will take a commensurate period of under-building to bring the market back to equilibrium. According this analysis:


“In May of last year the government reported that new home sales came in at a 300k annualized rate (seasonally adjusted), which was the lowest rate of new home sales ever recorded since the data series began in 1963. Based on our cumulative displacement model, new home sales would need to remain at 300k for approximately the next 10 years in order for this cycle to fully play out and be consistent with the prior three cycles.  The green circle shows where we were a year ago on this chart, and the yellow circle shows today.”


The chart below highlights this analysis and the cumulative time until the new homes market will be back in balance.


Is There A Silver Lining In Housing? - 2


The new home market is, of course, only a small part of the overall housing market.   In fact, based on the most recent annualized monthly numbers, new home sales are roughly 6% of the overall market.  Therefore, even if we are seeing marginal sequential improvement in new home sales, it is not necessarily indicative of any real change in the housing market.  In fact, the existing home market is likely a much better indicator of where new home sales are going than vice versa.  In the existing home market there is definitely no silver lining.


The April numbers for existing home sales was reported last week and were down -0.8% from March to an annualized number of 5.05MM home sales.  At the same time, inventory jumped, as reported by the National Association of Realtors, to 3.87 million homes on the market, which is a +9% increase compared to March.  On a months-supply basis, inventory rose to 9.2 months from 8.4 months in March.  


 The impact of this large amount of inventory is, logically, that home prices continue to decline absent a commensurate build-up in demand. The median price of an existing home was $163,700 in April, once again according to the National Association of Realtors, and down -5% versus a year ago.  The year-over-year decline moderated slightly in April compared to the -5.9% decline in March.  Since the series is not seasonally adjusted, sequential changes are not meaningful in analyzing price. 


The other key metric we watch, which will be reported for the most recent week tomorrow, is mortgage applications for new home purchases.  This is one of the best measures for future home purchases and it dropped -3.2% week-on-week last week, though did tick up +2% year-over-year.  The chart below shows the long term trend in mortgage applications, which suggests what we already outlined above, which is that housing demand remains quite weak, despite mortgage rates at near all-time lows.


Is There A Silver Lining In Housing? - 3


As a potential bright spot, our Financials Team also recently noted the following:


“Purchase apps for 2011 YTD are 5% below the full-year average for 2010, but are down 17% YTD vs. the comparable period last year.  Given that the next few months will mark easier comps as we lap the post tax-credit doldrums of summer 2010, it's looking possible that overall demand may be close to flat in 2011 relative to 2010. Should demand start to stabilize, this would mark a definite positive inflection from the secular falling demand trend that's been in place since 2005. Recall that our home price model is driven by 12-mo lagged demand.”


If the purchase applications do turn, this would indeed be an inflection point and something to keep front and center as a way to gauge an improving housing market, but so far any turn is minimal at best.


Also on the negative side of the ledger is the current debate and discussion over the Federal Housing Authority in Washington.  The Republicans circulated a proposal Monday that proposed to both increase the size of down payments from 3.5% to 5%, and to also decrease the size of the loans.  The issue is scheduled to be discussed Wednesday at a House Financial Services subcommittee hearing led by Rep. Judy Biggert (R-Ill.).


Despite the sequential pick-up in new home sales, we still don’t see a silver lining in the U.S. Housing Market.  As Housing Headwinds continue to percolate, that also supports our Q2 Macro Theme titled Indefinitely Dovish which postulates that the Federal Reserve will keep rates lower longer than investors expect.


Daryl G. Jones

Managing Director




May 24, 2011






  • In one of the more successful examples of utilizing one’s own customer loyalty program, DSW highlighted that not only does the program consist of nearly 17 million members, but they also accounted for 88% of sales in Q1! Based on these metrics, it would appear that the company’s precision approach to marketing to its loyal customer base has been a major success – perhaps one that other retailers should take note of.
  • Following Macy’s latest strategy of testing new concepts highlighted in yesterday’s R3 news, it appears the retailers’ latest test will be anchoring an outlet shopping center. The new hybrid shopping destination is being spearheaded by The Mills, a division of Simon Property Group in Illinois. We’ve heard many retail CEOs speak of offering compelling ‘value’ to drive traffic in recent months, what better proof of concept is there than being able to sell full-price merchandise alongside outlet product.



Nook Color Apps Hit One Million Downloads in One Week - Barnes & Noble Inc. has achieved a major milestone, and in very short order. Consumers have downloaded applications in its week-old Nook Apps mobile app store one million times. The top five paid apps are Angry Birds, Drawing Pad, Solitaire, Aces Jewel Hunt and Astraware Mahjong. The top five free apps are Fliq Calendar, Fliq Notes, Pulse, Nook Word of the Day and Fliq Tasks. “Our recent software update to Nook Color delivered the most-requested tablet features by our customers, including the ability to shop for and download high-quality apps. Reaching over a million app downloads in just a week since the launch of app shopping for all Nook Color customers exceeded expectations, and is an exciting milestone for our developers, publishing partners, and most importantly for our rapidly growing Nook Color user base,” says William Lynch, CEO. The bookseller did not respond to questions about the number of Nook Color devices and paid apps sold. <InternetRetailer>

Hedgeye Retail’s Take: Just in time. With a fresh offer on the table and Burkle’s Yucaipa circling, we expect to see additional offers forthcoming. The success of the Nook as the #2 player in the tablet space helps transform BKS from a shrinking legacy industry leader to a top player in one of the most coveted tech categories. Let the bidding begin!


Madden Acquires Topline - Steven Madden Ltd. has a new business in its stable. The Long Island City, N.Y.-based firm has acquired The Topline Corporation for $55 million in cash, it said today. Topline, a privately held producer and marketer of private-label and branded footwear founded in 1980, had net sales of about $189 million in 2010 and is expected to be add between 5 and 7 cents to Madden’s earnings for the full fiscal year. Topline runs a large private label business, and the firm’s owned brands, which include Report, Report Signature and R2 by Report, are distributed to specialty retailers and department stores. “Topline's private-label business is one of the best in our industry and is highly complementary to our existing private-label footwear business,” said Edward Rosenfeld, chairman and CEO of Steve Madden, in a statement. “Its brands are currently exhibiting outstanding growth and represent great additions to our brand portfolio.” Speaking to FN on the phone, Madden’s founder, Steve Madden, said Topline “has the best sourcing base in Northern China, and we’re excited about leveraging that. It will help value go up.” <WWD>

Hedgeye Retail’s Take: Consistent with the company’s strategy of adding new brands to the portfolio, this deal is on the larger side for Madden. On the heels of 26% growth in 2010, this deal alone will add nearly 30% growth to the top-line in 2011 in addition to the seven new brands added over the last two years that the company expects to contribute an incremental $100mm over the next 3-years. With the deal expected to be accretive we have to assume operating margins of at least 10% in which case, it appears the company picked up the brand at roughly 3x EBITDA. If its growth profile is as attractive as the release suggests and it improves sourcing prowess to boot – this was a good deal.


Charming Shoppes Exploring Sale of Fashion Bug - Charming Shoppes Inc. (CHRS), the operator of the plus-size Lane Bryant chain, is exploring a sale of its Fashion Bug stores, according to a person with knowledge of the matter. Moelis & Co. is advising the retailer on a possible deal, said the person, who declined to be named because the process isn’t public. A sale of the unit may be a few weeks away, the person said. Fashion Bug, aimed at women aged 30 to 50, makes up about a third of the chain’s more than $2 billion in sales. Chief Executive Officer Tony Romano is devoting resources to the more profitable Lane Bryant label to revive earnings after almost $500 million in losses since 2007. While demand for plus-size apparel is growing, Fashion Bug’s challenge as a lower-priced retailer is to deliver stylish clothing without sacrificing margins, said McMillan Doolittle LLP’s Neil Stern. <Bloomberg>

Hedgeye Retail’s Take: Two years after completely overhauling its strategy, the company is still operating at a loss so something’s gotta give. Divesting the Bug would not only remove the most value oriented concept in the portfolio, but also the only one not to see a rebound in sales in 2010 following losses at all three in 2009. Underperformance during a turnaround is typically short-lived as appears to be the case here.


Bharti Wal-Mart to Expand - Bharti Wal-Mart Pvt. Ltd. Tuesday said it aims to open up to 20 more cash-and-carry stores in India by the end of 2012, as the company continues to expand its business in the country. "We plan to open eight to 10 stores this year [in 2011] and a similar number next year," Raj Jain, chief executive and managing director, told reporters on the sidelines of a company event. "We have done much more than what we had announced in 2007," he added. The joint venture between U.S. retailer Wal-Mart Stores Inc. and India's Bharti Enterprises Ltd. currently has four stores in Punjab state and one each in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Earlier this month the company said it aimed to open 10-12 more cash-and-carry stores in India by the end of 2011. <WallstreetJournal>

Hedgeye Retail’s Take: Wal-Mart continues to chip away at penetrating one of the most attractive international markets, but process is more drip-like than opening up the floodgates given the country’s stance on foreign direct investment. Continued progress, but not even close to moving the needle.


Amazon is the Most-Trafficked Site in the U.K - Amazon Europe and housewares retailer Argos held onto their spots as the first and second highest trafficked sites in the United Kingdom, but online grocer and discount mass merchant Tesco Stores jumped two places this year to No. 3, according to a new report from e-retail trade organization Interactive Media in Retail Group (IMRG) and web site traffic measurement firm Experian Hitwise. Tesco overtook electronics and books retailer Play.com for the third spot in the IMRG and Experian Hot 100 list, which ranks e-retailers based on traffic. Experian Hitwise and IMRG say the department store, apparel and accessories, and grocery and alcohol categories grew the most this year, with department stores now accounting for 18% of all U.K. visits to online retailers. <InternetRetailer>

Hedgeye Retail’s Take: Can’t imagine the company’s offer for free shipping to the UK from February until mid-May hurt its standing. The dilemma now may be reset in customer expectations.


April Outdoor Product Sales up 10.4 Percent - Sales of outdoor products grew a robust 10.4 percent to $710.8 million in the four week fiscal April period that ended April 30. According to retail point-of-sale data from the April 2011 OIA VantagePoint™ Trend Report, Outdoor Footwear led the pack, up 18.1 percent on broader distribution of — and new entrants to — the natural/minimalist categories. Outdoor Hardgoods increased 8.6 percent thanks to impressive sales in specialty channels, where technical backpacks, camping and paddlesports grew strongly. Despite unseasonably wet and cold weather across many parts of the United States, Outdoor Apparel sales, much of which is spring-related wear at this time of year, rose 6.5 percent. <SportsOneSource>

Hedgeye Retail’s Take: Positive in aggregate, but one can’t ignore the regional performance embedded in these results as we heard from DKS last week. Following February and March sales that were on track with plan, the company took a big hit in April suggesting other regions outside of New England and the Northern Midwest outperformed. Following record precipitation in April, May has yet to provide much of a break suggesting the pent up demand retailers expect may be muted.  



European Data Download

Positions in Europe: Long Germany (EWG); Sweden (EWD)


As ash clouds from Iceland’s recent volcano eruption slowly drift into European skies (the UK already ground 250 flights) and discussions fly in every direction on a possible debt default/restructuring strategy in Greece (see yesterday’s European Risk Monitor post for our take), below we provide the most salient data points and charts out today in Europe:


1.   Germany’s second reading of Q1 GDP was unchanged quarter-over-quarter and year-over-year at 1.5% and 5.2%, respectively. As the table below shows, Exports, Capital Investment, and Construction made significant gains. We continue to like Germany’s healthy 2011 growth profile of ~ 3.2% GDP and sober fiscal standing as a defensive play with the backdrop of persistent sovereign debt contagion across the Euro region. We’re also long Sweden (via the etf EWD) in the Hedgeye Virtual Portfolio with a similar thesis to Germany. However, Sweden enjoys an independent central bank (and currency), and has prudently hiked interest rates over the last 10 months to head off inflation.


European Data Download - g1



2.   Germany’s IFO Business Survey confirmed a developing trend of slowing confidence over the last months. [Additionally we’re seeing a similar trend across many western European countries. France’s Production Outlook fell to 15 in May versus 21 in April and Business Confidence slipped to 107 in May versus 109 in April, according to INSEE National Statistics Office of France].


As the chart below shows, the 6-month forward looking German Expectations (which we key off on in particular) declined month-over-month, and again we think is representative of the uncertainty surrounding the fiscal health of the region’s periphery.


European Data Download - g2



3.   UK Net Borrowing (Excluding Financial Interventions) was £10 Billion in April versus £7.3B a year ago.  As Chancellor of the Exchequer Osborne continues to fight to curb spending and generate revenue to reduce the country’s deficit, the April figures show a -0.8% decline in revenue and 5% gain in spending. The revenue figure was affected by a one-off bank payroll tax that brought in £3.5 Billion last April, and the “relatively high bonuses being paid and share options being exercised,” according to the UK Statistical Office.


The deficit is expected to narrow to 122 Billion in the fiscal year that began in April, or 7.9% of GDP. Public Sector net debt at the end of April 2011 was £910.1 Billion (60.1% of GDP) up from £765.5 Billion (53.0% of GDP) at the end of April 2010.


We continue to be very cautious on the UK economy. Persistent inflation (CPI is currently at 4.5% Y/Y) is the most immediate term threat. The BoE has yet to clearly signal any concrete action to curb inflation's rise short of acknowledging it. We expect consumer and business confidence to wane over the intermediate term as growth prospects remain weak and the government sheds more public-sector jobs to reduce the budget deficit.


European Data Download - g3


Matthew Hedrick


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